Anatomy and Physiology is a foundational learning course that is essential to student success in all allied health programs.
Lesson 1: Organization of the Human Body
The student will understand the terms and concepts related to healthy human anatomy and physiology, including the body systems and what is necessary for the body to achieve and maintain a healthy state. In addition, the student will be able to list and define terms used to describe position within the body.
Lesson 2: Chemistry, Matter, and Life
The student will have a basic understanding of concepts in chemistry and biochemistry that are essential to study of the human body. They will know about the structure, behavior, and functions of elements, atoms, molecules, compounds, and mixtures, with special focus on water as an essential compound in all living systems. In addition, the student will be familiar with the characteristics and types of organic compounds and their composition.
Lesson 3: Cells and Their Functions
Students will be able to demonstrate knowledge of the structure of cells and the functions of organelles within them. They will be able to explain cell division, the mechanisms of transport across the plasma membrane, the important roles played by proteins, and the functions of different types of DNA and RNA. Finally, they will understand the nature of cancer and its possible causes.
Lesson 4: Tissues, Glands, and Membranes
Students will be able to identify the major tissue groups of the body and describe their locations and functions. Students will be familiar with benign and malignant cancers and their diagnoses and treatment.
Lesson 5: Disease and Disease-Producing Organisms
The student will be able to identify the major sources of disease, particularly infectious disease, and the principle subspecialties of microbiology: bacteriology, protozoology, mycology, and virology. They will also be able to identify the principle parasitic worms and explain how they cause disease. Students will understand the principle methods for controlling the spread of micro-organisms in human populations, and how micro-organisms are cultured and identified in the laboratory.
Lesson 6: Integumentary System
The student will gain an understanding of the critical function of the skin, including its structure (inner and outer layers) and accessory structures (glands, hair, nails). The student will also gain an appreciation for the skin’s role in thermoregulation, protection against infection, protection against dehydration, and sensation. The student will also learn the relationship between skin cancer and sunlight exposure and differentiate between two common forms of skin cancer.
Lesson 7: Skeletal System: Bones and Joints
The student will learn how bones form the skeletal system and how they, along with the muscular system, function to produce movement at the joints. The student will also learn about bone diseases, their origin, their effects on the body, how some bones and joints are repaired, and the effect of aging on bones and joints.
Lesson 8: Muscular System
The student will become familiar with muscle anatomy, in particular the skeletal (voluntary) muscles, and will be able to name and locate them and describe their functions. The student will understand what activates muscles, as well as the sources of energy for muscular contraction and how the energy is delivered and stored, and the effect of various kinds of exercise on muscles. The student will understand how muscles work in groups and how they work with bones as lever systems. Finally, the student will be familiar with muscle disorders and diseases, and the role of exercise in maintaining good health in general and healthy muscles in particular.
Lesson 9: Nervous System – The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
Students will understand the organization and components of the human nervous system, including the spinal cord, neurons, nerves, glial cells, myelin, and neurotransmitters. Students will be able to describe reflex arcs and spinal plexuses. Students will be able to describe some disorders of the spinal cord and spinal nerves and understand the rationale behind lumbar punctures. Students will understand the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Lesson 10: Nervous System: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
Students will be able to identify the location and function of the structures of the brain, including the meninges, hemispheres, cortex, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum. In addition, students will learn the names and functions of the 12 cranial nerves. Students will become familiar with the common disorders of the brain, and how brain function is evaluated.
Lesson 11: Sensory System
The student will be able to identify and compare and contrast all of the special and general sensory receptors and their functions. The student will be able to describe the principle parts of the structures of the eye and of the ear and their functions. The student will understand the roles of sensory adaptation and pain and will understand how to mitigate pain.
Lesson 12: Endocrine System: Glands and Hormones
Students will be able to identify the glands and hormones of the endocrine system and will understand the functions and effects of hormones, including hormone pathologies. Students will understand the medical use of hormones in combating disease.
Lesson 13: Blood
Students will be able to list and describe the main components of whole blood, including the erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. In addition, they will understand the concepts of blood grouping, transfusion reactions, and Rh compatibility. Students will understand the major blood pathologies and the tests that are used to diagnose blood disorders.
Lesson 14: The Heart and Heart Disease
Students will be able to identify the principal components of the heart and their functions. They will also gain an understanding of the circulatory, electrocardiac, and musculatory systems, and the pathophysiology of the heart. Finally, the students will be able to describe the cardiac cycle.
Lesson 15: Blood Vessels and Blood Circulation
Students will be able to describe the pulmonary and systemic circulatory systems and their components, including the major veins, arteries, sinuses, and portal systems. Students will understand the factors that influence blood flow, blood pressure, pulse, and capillary exchange. Students will be aware of disorders of the circulatory system, including hypertension, hemorrhage (trauma), and shock.
Lesson 16: Lymphatic System and Lymphoid Tissue
Students will be able to identify and describe the lymph system and its components, including the ducts, nodes, and fluids. Students will become familiar with the major lymph pathologies.
Lesson 17: Immunity
Students will be able to define infection and the human responses to infection, including inflammation and immunity; they will be able to list the components of the immune system and define their functions. Students will understand the difference between natural and artificial acquired immunity and the active and passive forms of immunity and will be able to define the roles of vaccines and immune sera. In addition, students will explore disorders of the immune system and will be able to state the role of the immune system in cancer prevention and transplantation reactions.
Lesson 18: Respiratory System
The student will gain an understanding of the structure and function of the respiratory system, including inhalation and exhalation, the processes of internal and external gas exchange, how gases are transported in the blood, and the regulation of these processes in the brain stem. The student will also understand the effects of a number of diseases that target the respiratory tract, and some of the instrumentation used to treat these diseases.
Lesson 19: Digestive System
The student will gain an understanding of the primary functions of the digestive tract (ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination), as well as the components of the digestive tract itself and the accessory organs (salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas). The student will also learn about digestive system diseases and disorders.
Lesson 20: Metabolism, Nutrition, and Body Temperature
The student will understand the cellular processes involved in metabolism, including how food is oxidized for energy, the use of nutrients for energy, and the essential amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals needed for healthy functioning. The student will also learn the type and amount of fat, carbohydrate, and protein necessary for good health and the disorders caused by poor nutrition. In addition, the student will understand how the body regulates temperature, including the body’s response to excessive heat and cold, and the causes and possible benefits of fever.
Lesson 21: Urinary System
The student will be able to draw a diagram showing how the urinary system functions to eliminate metabolic wastes, water, and salts from the body. Also, the student will be able to name and describe the major organs involved, including the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra, and understand their functions.
Lesson 22: Body Fluids
The student will recognize the importance of water as a solvent, a transport medium, and a participant in metabolic reactions. The student will understand how body fluids are distributed and how water balance is maintained. The student will also become acquainted with the disorders that occur when fluid intake and output are out of balance.
Lesson 23: Male and Female Reproductive Systems
The student will be able to identify the main organs of the male and female reproductive tracts and understand how they function alone and in relation to each other. Specifically, the student will acquire an understanding of the male and female gonads – the testes and the ovaries, their production of sex cells and hormones, the role of the hypothalamus and pituitary, the female menstrual cycle, and the major disorders that affect the male and female reproductive systems.
Lesson 24: Development and Birth
The student will be able to identify the structures of the main organs involved in fetal development and birth and will understand their function. The student will be able to describe the development process—from the fertilization of the egg to the secretion of essential hormones, which induce changes in the uterus and breasts to support the pregnancy, through the four stages of childbirth, and ultimately to the delivery of the fetus. The student will also be acquainted with life-threatening conditions that can harm the fetus and/or the mother, such as infectious diseases, endocrine abnormalities, tumors, and structural problems.
Lesson 25: Heredity and Hereditary Diseases
The student will gain an understanding of the role heredity plays in one’s abilities and characteristics, as well as the role of genes, chromosomes, DNA, and enzymes critical to metabolism. The student will also recognize how defective genes result in hereditary disorders and how progress made in early identification and treatment may help prevent later problems.